A colony of Portugal since 1511.
Invaded by Japan in the World War 2. 60 000 Timorese (13% of the population) were killed in the reprisals for assisting Australian commandos in their sabotage of an intended Japanese invasion of Australia. By contrast, Australia lost 20 000 in the entire war.
With Portuguese approval East Timor declared independence after democratic elections in 1975. The elected party was Fretilin.
In December 1975 Indonesia invaded.
The 'annexation' has never been recognised by the UN.
Over one third of the population has since been slaughtered. In percentage terms it is the biggest and most lucrative genocide since the Holocaust.